Jean-François Fayet, Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Nicolas Constantin, Marie Cugnet
“The Red Cross Facing the Red Star: Humanitarianism and Communism in the 20th century” is a four-year research project (2021-2025) funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation and based at the Department of Contemporary History of the University of Fribourg. It focuses on the complex relationship between the International Committee of the Red Cross, the National Red Cross Societies and the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (now the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) with communist or more generally Marxist-inspired movements and regimes since 1917.
It aims to analyse the confrontations, challenges and (often frustrated) opportunities that characterised these exchanges. Revolutionary struggles, as a national and transnational phenomenon, favoured the emergence of new types of armed conflict, new types of actors and new types of victims that challenged the assumptions on which the International Red Cross Movement had been built and questioned its universality. The project proposes to evaluate their influence on the evolution of humanitarian norms and practices during the 20th century.
University of Fribourg (Switzerland)/Universität Freiburg (Schweiz)